John D Hamaker- Biography


John D. Hamaker (1914-1994), was an American mechanical engineer, ecologist, agronomist and science writer in the fields of soil remineralization, rock dusting, mineralomics and climatology.
John Hamaker (originally Hanamaker) was born in Michigan, United States and graduated in Mechanical Engineering. Concerned for the environment, and influenced by books such as Bread From Stones,[1][2][3], which showed plants grow better in soils formed by mimicking natural soil-forming processes that take millenia (glaciers grinding over the earth’s crust), in the 1970s, he cultivated a strong interest in soil and climate issues. From the 1960s, Hamaker published articles about how the health of an individual, society and planetary ecology only thrive as an integrated interdependent whole. For decades he wrote and campaigned about the subject of remineralization, and was the first to call for the remineralization of the Earth to mitigate the next ice age. Hamaker produced a notable book The Survival Of Civilization in 1982, republished in 2002.[4]
Early developments
According to his writings, in 1976, Hamaker spread rock dust on part of his 10 acres in Michigan. The following year, his corn produced 65 bushels per acre, compared to yields of under 25 from other local farms, and was also higher in many minerals. He calculated that remineralized soil, would enable American agriculture to produce four times as much food or the same amount with a 25% reduction in cost, without the need for pesticides or chemical fertilizers.
In the 1970s, books such as The Cooling,[5]The Weather Conspiracy,[6] The Weather Machine,[7] and Climate: Present, Past & Future,[8] were warning of a coming ice age within decades. In parallel, books such as A Blueprint For Survival, [9] The Limits To Growth,[10] and The Population Bomb, [11] warned of multiple social, economic, ecological and population crises. At the same time, Hamaker continued to generate articles and bulletins[12][13] as well as campaign, on what was by now his main pre-occupation, the remineralization of the world’s soils to mitigate.
The Survival Of Civilization
In 1982, he produced with Californian ecologist, Donald A. Weaver, The Survival Of Civilization, subtitled Carbon Dioxide, Investment Money - Three Problems Threatening Our Existence; Population, Soil Tectonics, Economic & Climate Systems Explained-Problems and Solutions, which was re-published by Remineralize The Earth in 2002. [14] Annotations and supporting evidence were provided by Weaver. The book which initially sold 14,000 copies, concerned the imminent ice age, remineralizing the world's soils on a global scale and reforesting the planet to help slow the glacial advance.[15]
The treatise was a synthesis of Hamaker's thinking that emerged from his studies and research in several disciplines including soil science and paleoclimatology. His message, dubbed the Hamaker Thesis, was that due to modern agricultural and agro-forestry practices, the soils were running out of minerals, causing the dying of forests worldwide and nutritient deficiencies in food. He offered soil remineralization as a solution, advocating regeneration of soil and forests with rock dusts as an economic and ecologically sustainable alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Hamaker regarded this as one of the most powerful ideas in human history. The book and its message was well-received by soil and nutritional scientists and regarded as a blueprint for restoring the planet's ecological integrity by the worldwide remineralization movement.[16]
Endorsing the book, Buckminster Fuller, inventor of the geodesic dome, author of book Critical Path and Professor Emeritus at the University of Pennsylvania, wrote in a publicized letter to Donald Weaver in 1983: "I have received and read John Hamaker’s The Survival of Civilization. Well done. Completely convincing.... I will tell all those inquiring of me about matters relevant to our survival that they had best read Hamaker's book." [17] Reviewing the book, author Bertram Cohen wrote: "A global climate shift is now underway which will make the temperate zone part of the sub-arctic zone by 1995 and soon deprive humanity of its food supply." pointing out that "Dr Herbert Shelton, both in his books and in Hygienic Review, emphasised the importance of soil remineralization in creating a Hygienic Agriculture." [18]
In support of the book, The Earth Renewal Society presented a statement to a Congressional hearing in Chicago in March 1984.[19]
[edit] Discoveries & inventions
Rock medicine
Hamaker believed remineralizing the world’s soil with rock dust, a quarrying by-product, could revitalise barren soil and reverse climate change. Rock dust nourished soil micro-organisms whose protoplasm is the basis of all living things. When mixed with compost, the dust created rich, deep soils which could produce high growth vegetation free from pests and predators, at an accelerated rate. The idea was later confirmed by agricultural scientist, Arden Andersen, who showed how high sugar and mineral levels in soil gave immunity to bacteria in soil stopping insect and fungal attacks.[20] For Hamaker and Andersen, minerals were the medicinal food for micro-organisms who provided health for the soil.
Rock crushers
Hamaker invented a handheld rock crusher and a macro version for creating rock dust. The full design for the rock crusher is described in The Survival Of Civilization. On 19 Ocotober 1984, China's Research Institute of Forests accepted Hamaker's gift of his patent for a rock-crushing grinder to remineralize the soil, since China was leading the world in reforestation programs. [21]
[edit] Scientific basis
Climate cycles
The Earth’s soil is demineralized during every interglacial period, the short 10,000-year warm period between every 90,000-year major ice age. This causes a decline in the world’s forests and other vegetation which are carbon dioxide sinks, and so more carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. [22] Carbon dioxide levels in Earth’s atmosphere have been exponentially rising throughout the 20th century. Excessive heat from the sun is trapped by CO2 and other greenhouse gases, affecting global climate. Hamaker explained the 100,000-year cycle of major ice ages by postulating that the greenhouse effect takes place mainly in the tropics, which receives the most sun, instead of in polar regions.
Polar expansion
When temperature differences between the poles and the tropics increases, a cycle of heavy wind, hurricanes, storms and tornadoes occurs.[23][24][25] Moisture by these events is carried to higher lattitudes where they are deposited in ice and snow, the net result being glaciation and another ice age.[26] Record snow in the Northern hemisphere and the shortening of the growing season is a prevailing pattern. As glaciers advance and recede during each ice age, they grind down rocks in their path.[27] The mineral-rich dust is blown over the Earth's surface, remineralizing soils and enlivening plant life.
Shorter growing season
Hamaker believed that within decades, the growing season would decrease leading to mass starvation in rich and poor nations alike. He therefore proposed the remineralization of the world’s soils and forests, to propagate carbon sinks, thereby absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and so contributing to general climatic stability. By assuming the task of remineralizing the Earth’s soils, just like glaciers do during an ice age, remineralization would create fertile soils - the basis for the re-creation of climax ecosystems.
Glacial threat
Hamaker believed in a distinct and imminent threat of a new glacial period, following a long series of glaciations in the geological and glacial-interglacial cycle timeframe.[28][29] He felt that remineralizing the world’s soils could generate a climax geosystem (as opposed to a pioneer one), through mass reafforestation. This would solve the climate crisis as well as the food crisis, by helping to stabilize the planet’s ability to geophysiologically self-regulate, or at least, postpone the next glaciation.
Volcanic El Ninos
Hamaker also believed that increased tectonic activity occurring with snow and ice buildup could heat up tropical oceans through sea floor volcanism, and in addition to the intensified greenhouse effect, be a prime cause of the El Nino phenomenon.
[edit] Corroborated findings
In 1983, Nicholas Shackleton and other UK scientists published an article in Nature which stated that the last glacial period began when the CO2 in the atmosphere reached about 290ppm, and that the world was already ahead of that figure at a critical 343-345 ppm. Hamaker explained the significance of Shackleton's findings in Acres USA: "CO2 has its primary importance as the initiator of glaciation. Once an extensive ice field is established, its cooling effect maintains the temperature differential which keeps glaciation going. Variations in the amount of CO2 simply cause variations in the world albedo, but they do stop or start glaciation. The world is committed to glaciation when the ice fields alone reflect enough sunlight to ensure cooling." [30]
On 3rd June 1984, Hamaker appeared on Ted Turner's Atlanta Superstation restating Sir George Simpson's 1938 analysis[31] and later warnings by Richard Somerville and Lorraine Remer of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in their article in the Journal of Geophysical Research: "It's that cloud that you have to worry about because it's reflecting 80% of the sun's energy back into space and it's never becoming effective in warming the Earth. So we're getting cooling as the result of the carbon dioxide buildup." [32] Around this time, Scientific American summarized: "They (Somerville & Remer) suggest the global warming might be lessened by concurrent changes in the properties of clouds... Denser clouds will reflect a larger proportion of incoming solar radation; the reduction in the energy reaching the surface will counteract the greenhouse effect." [33]
[edit] Remineralization benefits
Primary benefits:
    * Provides slow, natural release of elements and trace minerals.
    * Increases the nutrient intake of plants.
    * Increases yields and gives higher brix. Brix is the measure of dissolved solids in the sap of plants of their fruits that correlates with greater nutritive value.
    * Rebalances soil pH.
    * Increases the growth of micro-organisms and earthworm activity.
    * Builds humus complex.
    * Prevents soil erosion.
    * Increases the storage capacity of the soil.
    * Increases resistance to insects, disease, frost and drought.
    * Produces more nutritious crops (minerals are essential for human health).[34]
    * Enhances flavor in crops.
    * Decreases dependence on fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides.[35][36][37][38]
Further benefits:
    * Reafforestation.
    * Increases forest and land resources.
    * Enhances ecosystems.
    * Increases biodiversity.
    * Carbon offsetting.
    * Greater climatic equilibrium.
    * Sustainable forestry, farming and energy opportunities.
[edit] Influence
John D. Hamaker's work triggered a mass movement of people to become involved in remineralization, including permaculturists, organic farmers, biodynamic farmers, gardeners, vegetarians, environmentalists, scientists, climatologists, journalists, religious groups, political groups, community organizations and ordinary citizens.
[edit] Remineralize The Earth
In the 1980s, Hamaker became a catalyst for the formation of Remineralize The Earth (RTE), set up by Joanna Campe, its President and Executive Director. RTE promoted the regeneration of soils and forests worldwide with finely ground rock dust as a sustainable alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. As well as recycling and returning organic matter to the soil, the organization asserted that returning all of the mineral nutrients which create fertile soils and healthy crops and forests, was equally important. For RTE, remineralization was essential to restoring ecological balance and stabilizing the climate.
Campe produced the Soil Remineralization Newsletter and Remineralize the Earth magazine in the 1980s, before the organization's incorporation as a non-profit organization.
In 1994, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), U.S. Bureau of Mines, National Stone Association and National Aggregates Association co-sponsored a symposium "Soil Remineralization and Sustainable Agriculture" at USDA headquarters in Washington DC.
In 1995, Campe coordinated a two-year research project with the University of Massachusetts into remineralization.
In Campe's letter to Newsweek Magazine in October 2006, she warned that global warming could trigger an ice age [39] and that soil remineralization and reafforestation were the solutions. [40] In the same period, major magazines expressed concern of a coming ice age including The Atlantic Monthly,[41] National Geographic,[42] Discover Magazine, The Spectator[43] and BBC Focus Magazine [44]. Institutes in Northern Europe and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute shared the concern.
Campe was invited by the State Department to speak at the Washington International Renewable Energy Conference 2008.
In 2009, the Global Coral Reef Alliance invited RTE to write a chapter for the DVD Rom book The Green Disk: New Technologies for A New World, being distributed to all U.N. delegates at the United Nations Climate Change Conference (COP15) in Copenhagen during December 2009. [45]
RTE's Real Food Campaign directed by Dan Kittredge, is a project promoting nutrient rich food and creating a new standard for food quality. Award-winning ecological designer, Dr. John Todd, of Ocean Arks International directs RTE's Agroforestry Project in Costa Rica, a project intercropping commercial hardwoods, fruit trees and jatropha, which produces a sustainable biofuel while regenerating the soil.
[edit] Sustainable Ecological Earth Regeneration
Inspired by Hamaker, in the 1990s, Cameron and Moira Thomson set up the charitable trust Sustainable Ecological Earth Regeneration (SEER) in Scotland, to develop the ideas which Hamaker founded.[46]
In Remineralization Might Save Us From Global Warming [47], Paul Kelbie wrote in The Independent, that since the last ice age three million years ago, the Earth has gone through 25 similar glaciations, each lasting about 90,000 years, and that we are now 10,800 years into an interglacial – a hiatus between ice–ages. Previous interglacials averaged 10 to 12,000 years in duration, with the most significant environmental change being interglacial soil demineralization and retrogressive vegetational succession.[48] Since this meant modern soils were relatively barren and artificial fertilisers were needed, it was SEER’s belief that by "By spreading the dust, we are doing in minutes what the earth takes thousands of years to do - putting essential minerals in the rocks back into the earth." SEER won funding from the Scottish Executive to conduct the UK’s first official rock dust trials, and maintained that rock dust could fight climate change because calcium and magnesium in the dust converts carbon in the air into carbonates. The theory captured the attention of NASA who were researching the growing of plants on other planets. [49]
For SEER, as well as producing high yields, and re-balancing the Earth’s ecology and geophysiology, rock dusting also brought nutritional benefits due to the enrichment of crops, and so benefits to human health.[50]
[edit] Earth Health Regeneration
In 2002, 20 years after Hamaker’s book was published, Donald Weaver, of Earth Health Regeneration (California) produced To Love And Regenerate The Earth, an update on Hamaker's book which was published by Remineralize The Earth. [51] The new book clarified ideas raised in the original book whilst providing new evidence from the 1990s and 2000s to show the direction of climate and environmental change.
Weaver considered Hamaker a broad synthesist in the fields of ecology and climate, who recognized how the forests and the trees integrated with the whole biological-tectonic-climatic Earth system. For Weaver and Hamaker, a new glacial period, one in a long series of glacial periods, was due in the geological and glacial-interglacial cycle time frame. Weaver explained that Hamaker was convinced that humanity was rushing into the next glacial period due to carbon dioxide build-up after the normal interglacial soil demineralization and retrogressive vegetational succession, as best documented by Iverson and Andersen, State Geologists from Denmark in their book The Holocene.[52]
[edit] Institute For A Future
In the mid-1980s, author, and professor of clinical psychology from Harvard University, Larry Ephron, set up the U.S. based Institute For A Future and produced The End: The Coming Ice Age & How We Can Stop It,[53] which examined the theory and themes raised in Hamaker’s book[54] citing climatologist Reid Bryson, of the University of Wisconsin: "Breakthroughts never come from within the establishment."[55]
The book specifically examined man's influence on nature and climate change.[56] Topics covered included Astrophysics, Climatology, Geology, Glaciology, Magnetometerology, Mmicrobiology, Paleobotany, Paleontology, Palynology, Paramagnetism, Plate Tectonics, Soil Remineralization, Seismology, Soil Science, Solar Physics and Human Survival.
Ephron showed how climatologists such as John Gribbin and Stephen Schneider who recognized the connection between global warming and the buildup of snow and ice, saw ice buildup only as a side effect of continued overall warming, rather than linking CO2 increase, global warming, ice buildup, glaciation and ice ages, together. An exception was Pierre Lehman, a Swiss atmospheric physicist who noted the important link between soil and climate [57] NASA climatologist James Hansen was also noted as saying "it is not certain whether CO2 warming will cause the ice sheets to shrink or grow. For example, if the ocean warms but the air above the ice sheets remains below freezing, the effect could be increased snowfall, net ice sheet growth."[58]
In the book, Dave Foreman, Founder of Earth First! wrote: "An ice age is coming, and I welcome it as a much needed cleansing. I see no possible solution to our ruination of Earth except for a drastic reduction of the human population." Other endorsements came from S. W. Matthews, Assistant Editor, National Geographic: "The ice age, which has really not left the planet for two million years, is reasserting itself. The warm time... is over. The next great return of ice has begun." and Paul Gersper, Professor of Soil Science, University of California: "The actions recommended here are urgently needed to avoid global disaster."
A film was made of the book called Stopping The Ice Age[59] in 1988, which Ephron co-produced and directed. Like the book, it carried endorsements from various scientists and universities including Kenneth Watt, Professor of Environmental Studies, University of California: "An astonishing service for humanity." and recording artiste, Sting, "Everybody has to see this". Ephron's writing on glaciation also appeared in the Toronto Globe and Mail, the Los Angeles Weekly and Acres USA.
[edit] New Energy Movement
In the 1980s, a contemporary of Hamaker, Alden Bryant, [60][61] set up a campaign organization the New Energy Movement (formerly Earth Regeneration Society and Reafforestation Society) with Barbara Logan, attending international conferences on climate issues.
[edit] Further proponents
From the 1980s, several books citing remineralization began to appear including The Tree War: How to Save the Earth and Bring Together the Nations, [62] The Enlivened Rock Dust Powders,[63] Secrets of the Soil[64] and The Secret Life Of Plants[65]
In the late 1980s, Peter von Fragstein of the University of Kessel, Germany, began researching remineralization with many different rock types as a slow-release fertilizer and to deter insects.
Hamaker’s research also complemented work by Bill Mollison[66] John Jeavons and Masanobu Fukuoka, of the sustainable agriculture, trilateral agriculture, biodynamic farming and permaculture movements. It further brought interest from science writer Bill Callaghan[67] who developed the rock dusting theme in his work on paramagnetism, a field related to radionics, biophotonics, bio-energetics, bio-resonance, Schumann waves and subtle energy.[68]
In the 1990s, the Men of the Trees organization in Australia conducted remineralization trials with many species of trees in Australia with significant results, such as five times the growth of trees seedlings of one variety of eucalyptus, compared to the untreated controls.
Science writers such as Robert Felix, author of Not by Fire But By Ice echoed concerns about the coming glaciation, expressed by Hamaker and Bryant, which he documented at Ice Age Now.[69] [1]
In the 2000s, NCAR scientist Dr. Lee Klinger began to investigate the relationship between rock dust and plant growth,[70][71] and NASA began to experiment with lunar soil, plant growth and hydrophonics.[72]
In 2001, Alanna Moore produced the book Stone Age Farming: Eco-Agriculture for the 21st Century[73] which combined remineralization with permaculture for a new eco-agricultural paradigm.
In 2005, Allan Yeoman[74] documented in Priority One, the potential to bring atmospheric carbon to pre-industrial levels within 5 years, through remineralization of the world's agricultural lands. For Yeoman, as well as reducing global CO2 levels to safe levels, it would revitalize the soil and biological life on the planet, and increase human nutrition and health levels.
In 2006, British author, Graham Harvey,[75] produced the book We Want Real Food which documented the results of remineralization, in terms of soil health and nutritional values in food.
[edit] Rocks for Crops
In 2007, research organization Rocks for Crops,[76] was initiated by Mexican soil scientist, Jairo Restrepo Rivera (who translated Bread From Stones into Spanish and gave conferences on remineralization in Columbia, Brazil and Mexico), Peter Von Straaten from the University of Guelph (Canada) and Suzi Teodoro from the University of Brasilia (Brazil). The group confirmed that a branch of geology originating at the University of Guelph, was evolving called agrogeology after von Straaten published the book Agrogeology: The Use of Rocks for Crops. The science was developing in Germany, Canada and USA, and being researched in Brazil, Tanzania and the Canary Islands. Other researchers included William Fyfe and Ward Chesworth.
The science of agrogeology is the study of natural geological materials suitable for restoring soils as an alternative to chemical fertilizers, particularly for worn out tropical soils. Due to intense tropical rainfall, chemical fertilizers are washed away from laterite soils within weeks, and cannot be stored by the soils, which is especially harmful to the groundwater. Rock fertilizers supply nutrients over longer periods to cultivated plants, as well as improving the ion-exchange-capacity of soils by forming new clay minerals during the weathering of fertilizer.
In November 2009, a Rocks for Crops conference was held in Brasilia with 170 participants to discuss the new science. Further conferences were held in Rio de Janeiro and in Mexico, in December 2009 for the study and promotion of remineralization worldwide.[77]
In the book and video, Manual Práctico ABC de la Agricultura Orgánica y Harina de Rocas [78], Jairo Restrepo Rivera describes how to regenerate overcultivated soils with rock dust.
[edit] Legacy
Hamaker conducted the groundwork for a mass movement of people concerned about the health of the world’s soils, sustainable forests, climate change and nutrition in food. His solution, rockdusting, known to enhance plant growth by altering biological and chemical aspects of the rhizosphere, offered a geoengineering solution to the climate crisis not dependent on high technology, or on-going climate maintenance by man.[79] Some scientists have postulated that technological solutions may exist to assist the remineralization process, i.e. converting carbon dioxide into organic carbon to be mineralized as sediment before it is weathered to soil.
[edit] Writings
Hamaker’s main book was The Survival Of Civilization (1983, 2002). [80] He also produced various articles and publications from the 1960s to the 1990s. His ideas were later consolidated by Donald A. Weaver in his book To Love & Regenerate The Earth (2002), [81] and in articles for publications including Living Nutrition magazine.[82][83][84][85] Weaver is also involved in education campaigns to alert humanity to the climate crisis and rock dust solution.
[edit] Criticisms
Hamaker’s hypothesis is criticised on account that fossil fuel energy is potentially required to create and distribute rock dust, and this generates CO2 when derived from fossil fuel, however, rock dust is generally a byproduct of the aggregate and quarrying industries [86] and handheld rock crushers only use kinetic energy.
Climate control
Since land is naturally fertilized in glacial periods, remineralizing the Earth would emulate the glaciation process, allowing the reversal of what Hamaker referred to as retrogressive vegetational succession (decline in the vegetative index). His belief was that this would slow down the speed of glaciation, however, scientists such as Mukul Sharmar,[87] Charles A. Perry,[88] Yuk Yung, Nigel Calder[89], Henrik Svensmark,[90] Eigil Friis-Christensen, Knud Lassen,[91] Alexander Chizhevsky[92] who have cited variations in the sunspot cycle as the dominant mechanism in climate cycles on Earth, not vegetation,[93][94][95] have yet to incorporate the demineralization dimension.
More than a mini ice age in 2013-2041 and major ice age in 2500 as projected by Khabibullo Abdusamatov and studied by NASA, [96][97][98][99][100] Hamaker's immediate concern was the shortening of the growing season from the coming glacial period, which he believed could be mitigated through rock dusting, resulting in more abundant yields at harvest.
[edit] See also
    * Remineralize The Earth, Bioenergy Wiki
    * Rock Dust
    * Rock Flour
    * Remineralization (Biogeochemistry)
    * Soil Mineralization
    * Mineralization
    * Solar Variation
    * List of Scientists Opposing the Mainstream Scientific Assessment of Global Warming
[edit] References
   1. ^ Bread From Stones: A New and Rational System of Land Fertilization and Physical Regeneration, republished by Acres USA, Austin, Texas - Julius Hensel
   2. ^ Julius Hensel by John Mann
   3. ^ Bread From Stones: A New and Rational System of Land Fertilization and Physical Regeneration, republished by Acres USA, Austin, Texas - Julius Hensel
   4. ^ "Hamaker's book, The Survival of Civilization, published in 1982, declares that only a worldwide remineralization of the soil can stop a plunge into the worst catastrophe of recorded history. He wrote that we must stop fossil fuel use on a crash basis, grind rocks to put the minerals back into the soil to save our forests and crops, and manage the greatest social transition ever attempted. Otherwise we die.", The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, Acres USA, 1990s, page 28
   5. ^ The Cooling, Lowe Ponte, 1976, "The cooling has already killed thousands of people in poor nations. If it continues and no strong measures are taken to deal with it, the cooling will cause world famine, world chaos, and probably world war, and this could all come about by the year 2000."
   6. ^ The Weather Conspiracy, Peter Kilroy, Alastair Clark and The Climate Impact Team, Heron Publishing/Ballantine Books (1977). ISBN 0345272099.
   7. ^ The Weather Machine, Nigel Calder, BBC Publications, 1974, "Colder weather and longer droughts will bring a scarcity of food for the prosperous nations, famine and starvation for the less economically stable."
   8. ^ Climate: Present, Past & Future, H. H. Lamb, Routledge 1977
   9. ^ A Blueprint For Survival, Edward Goldsmith, Penguin Books, 1972
 10. ^ The Limits To Growth, Donella Meadows, Club Of Rome, 1972
 11. ^ The Population Bomb - Paul Ehrlich
 12. ^ Factors That May Be Bringing On The Next Ice Age and How We Can Stop It, John Hamaker, Hamaker Weaver Publishers
 13. ^ Solar Age Or Ice Age? Bulletin, John Hamaker, Hamaker-Weaver Publishers
 14. ^ The Survival Of Civilization, John Hamaker & Donald Weaver, Hamaker Weaver Publishers, 1982 / Remineralize The Earth, 2002
 15. ^ "worldwide destruction of forests at 30 hectares per minute, plus acid rain and pollution, depleted minerals in soils – also causing trees and forests to die and burn, causing the rise of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere normally balanced by forests, causing extremes in climate, cold, heat, drought, floods, storms, wind and an imminent new ice age, causing crop failure, food shortages, global famine and starvation, - is the end of civilization." The Survival Of Civilization, John Hamaker, Hamaker-Weaver Publishers, 1982
 16. ^ "The book contained a carbon dioxide curve based on the Mauna Loa recorded concentration of carbon dioxide between 1957 and 1976, plus an anticipated extension of the curve based on soil demineralization and anticipated forest decline and burning. This curve demonstrates that more than 345 part per million of CO2 will produce a glacial period if nothing is done to reduce the carbon dioxide. The destruction of our forests must be offset and a sufficient soil forest-energy program must be carried out to stop and reverse the CO2 increase." The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, Tree War Assembly (Massachusetts), in Acres USA, eco-agriculture newspaper, 1990s
 17. ^ To Love & Regenerate The Earth (book), Don Weaver, 2002,
 18. ^ Bertram Cohen,Health Science Journal, July 1986
 19. ^ (Palynologist) Geneviève Woillard has shown that the transition period to an Ice Age occurs in a 75 to 150 period with an intense 20 year changeover period at the end. John Hamaker states that we are 10 years into this changeover period. His criteria are the increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere: the annual rate of increase doubled from 1975 to 1985 and will double again from 1985 to 1995. Other criteria: the increase of volcanic activity and of earthquakes, the shortening of the growing seasons, the increase of soil erosion - doubling in the United States from 1975 to 1981 - the increased floodingi n spring, the increase of drought in the tropical areas and the drought in the temperate zones in summer, the increasing severity of winters, the increase of snow and ice masses in the polar regions, the advances of glaciers in localized areas such as China and the increase of forest fires." The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, Acres USA, 1990s, page 28
 20. ^ Anatomy Of Life and Energy in Agriculture, Arden Andersen, Paperback. ISBN 091131119X. Publisher: Acres USA.
 21. ^ The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, by Tree War Assembly (Massachusetts), in Acres USA, 1990s
 22. ^ Stone Age Science: Rejuvenating The Earth With Rock Dust, Dylan Keating, Permaculture, Spring 2007, "As we reach the end of the interglacial period, the minerals have mainly left the soil.... as these minerals leave the soil, plant life decreases and carbon is released. The increased carbon acts as a signal to the planet that minerals are needed. The Earth then goes through a glacial period to replace those nutrients."
 23. ^ The Next Ice Age, Larry Ephron, in The Futurist; September 01, 1989, "The hot tropical air rises faster, and cold polar air rushes in to replace it. The result is higher winds, including more and bigger hurricanes and tornadoes. These greenhouse winds often carry much moisture with them, evaporated from the overheated tropical oceans. Carried in clouds to the higher latitudes, this moisture falls as increasing rain during the spring and fall and as increasing snow during the winter. Thus, winters get longer and colder, and there are more devastating floods in the spring."
 24. ^ The Next Ice Age Is on Its Way, Philip V. Brennan,, Wednesday, Oct. 12, 2005 "The CO2 becomes moisture and falls as rain in the summer, autumn and spring, and snow in winter."
 25. ^ How Global Warming May Cause The Next Ice Age, Thom Hartmann, adapted from chapter in The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight, Three Rivers Press
 26. ^ "the global climate system seems to be more stable when the Earth has a huge volume of water locked in ice sheets in polar regions than under the present condition with ice sheets existing only on Antarctica and Greenland. It is therefore possible that the present global warming may act as the trigger of the next glaciation. If the interglacial is indeed a brief unstable period for Earth, then we should be very careful not to risk triggering the shift to the next glacial period through anthropogenic activities.", Isamu Kayane in Interactions between the Biospheric Aspects of the Hydrological Cycle and Land Use Change, Global Change Newsletter, March 1996, quoted in Global Warming Triggers New Ice Age, Living Nutrition, Volume 4, 1997
 27. ^ Remineralization by Jeff Johnston, Natural Life Magazine, 1997 "These glaciers ground rock into powders as fine as flour and distributed them over wide areas."
 28. ^ Climatic Cycles (Hamaker), Australia: Nexus Magazine, 1990s, vol. 1, no. 4
 29. ^ Climate: The Key to Understanding Business Cycles, Raymond H. Wheeler, Tide Press (1983)
 30. ^ The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, by Tree War Assembly (Massachusetts), in Acres USA, 1990s
 31. ^ Simpson, Sir George, 1938, Nature 141: 591; reprinted in the Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution 1938, 289-302.
 32. ^ The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, by Tree War Assembly (Massachusetts), in Acres USA (newspaper), 1990s
 33. ^ Scientific American article quoted in The Big Climate Shift Coverup Revisited, by Tree War Assembly (Massachusetts), in Acres USA, 1990s
 34. ^ Minerals’ Role in Detoxification and Body Building by Griselda Blazey, Ph.D., Living Nutrition Magazine, Volume 4
 35. ^ Organic Matters Growing Food Organically – Remineralization by Jeff Johnston
 36. ^ Loss of Soil Organic Matter and Its Restoration, William A. Albrecht, Professor of Soils, University of Missouri
 37. ^,%20Mineral%2... Co-utilisation of mineral fines and composts
 38. ^ Why Remineralize?, Benefits of Remineralization, Remineralize The Earth
 39. ^ “we are still concerned that global warming could trigger an ice age. Remineralize the Earth advocates the remineralization of soils worldwide with finely ground rock dust as an alternative to chemical fertlilizers and pesticides and as a way to sequester carbon and stabilize the climate, whether it is ultimately warming or cooling.” Newsweek, October 2006
 40. ^ "Global warming is now accelerating so quickly and so alarmingly, that if the Arctic were to totally melt, it would possibly take us out of the glacial to interglacial cycle altogether. Otherwise, warming leading to cooling is still a possibility. Remineralization of soils is not only key to stabilizing the climate, but in this era of great concern about peak oil, could create an economics of abundance rather than scarcity (fertilizing soils with petrochemicals). Millions of tons of mineral fines are stored as a by-product of the aggregate industry and could be the basis for a new sustainable agriculture and forestry." Newsweek, October 2006
 41. ^ The Great Climate Flip-Flop, William Calvin, Atlantic Monthly, January 1998.
 42. ^ Sea Study Warns Mini Ice Age May Be Coming Soon, James Owen, National Geographic News, November 2005.
 43. ^ Preparing For The Big Chill, Andrew Kenny, The Spectator, 22 June 2002
 44. ^ BBC Focus Magazine, Snowball Earth edition
 45. ^ The Potential of Remineralization with Rock Mineral Fines to Transform Agriculture, Forestry, Sustainable Biofuels Production, Sequester Carbon and Stabilize the Climate, Joanna Campe, Dan Kittredge and Lee Klinger, appearing in The Green Disk: New Technologies for a New World (Green Growth Books 2009), "Soil Remineralization (SR) creates fertile soils by returning the minerals to the soil much the same way the Earth does by weathering of minerals from rocks, and the materials are readily available and inexpensive worldwide as a byproduct of stone and gravel operations. SR is an essential tool for sustainable development, economic empowerment, and social justice by creating a local nutrient dense food supply for all, improved health and generating livelihoods within local communities and it can play a critical role in overcoming hunger and poverty, ecological restoration, carbon sequestration and climate stabilization."
 46. ^ Stone Age Science: Rejuvenating The Earth With Rock Dust. Dylan Keating, Permaculture, Spring 2007
 47. ^ Remineralization Might Save Us From Global Warming, The Independent, Paul Kelbie, 21st March 2005
 48. ^ Global Warming Triggers New Ice Age, Don Weaver, Living Nutrition Volume 4, 1997 "We must learn from the paleo-ecological and paleo-climatological evidence of past interglacial periods and their alternation with approximately 90,000 years average glacial periods within our current ice age."
 49. ^ Lunar Base Agriculture: Soils For Plant Growth - D. Ming & D. Henninger, American Society of Agronomy (1989), ISBN 0891181008.
 50. ^$37 On a Fad Diet of Rock Dust, How the Garden Does Grow Henry Homeyer, June 24, 2004, New York Times.
 51. ^ To Love & Regenerate The Earth (book), Don Weaver, Remineralize The Earth, 2002,
 52. ^ Andersen, Svend, 1966, The Palaeobotanist 15:117; Andersen, Svend, 1969, Interglacial vegetation and soil development, Medd. Dansk Geol. Foren, Kovenhavn, Bind 19.
 53. ^ The End: The Coming Ice Age & How We Can Stop It - Larry Ephron Ph.D., California: Celestial Arts, 1988, ISBN 0-89087-507-3
 54. ^ "Given Hamaker's position as an outsider who doesn't publish in the right journals, his work was almost bound to be dismissed. It would not be easy for the scientific establishment to admit that an outsider might have solved the ice age problem." The End, Larry Ephron, California: Celestial Arts, 1988, chapter The Political Climate
 55. ^ The End by Larry Ephron, Celestial Arts, California, 1988, ISBN 0 89087 507-3
 56. ^ "Record cold winters again and again; increasing floods, hurricanes and tornadoes; dying forests; massive fossil fuel burning; and the clearcutting of the tropical rainforests. All these may be related. The next ice age may be virtually upon us – a natural 100,000 year cycle which we are accelerating in many ways. If we act very quickly, we may be able to stop the ice ages. If not, we may stop eating." The End by Larry Ephron, Celestial Arts, California, 1988, ISBN 0 89087 507-3
 57. ^ "Hamaker has at least made an attempt to put the climatic issue on a broader basis not very different from the Gaia approach of Jim Lovelock. Climate, biosphere and tectonic systems form an indissociable whole and condition each other. The biosphere and the atmosphere are interlocked in a permanent exchange of matter (carbon in particular) and energy which makes it impossible for the one not to be influenced by the other. So the soil fertility is a contributor to the climate." The Political Climate, in The End, Larry Ephron, Celestial Arts, 1988
 58. ^ The Political Climate, in The End, Larry Ephron, Celestial Arts, 1988
 59. ^ Stopping The Coming Ice Age, 1988, Institute For A Future, Director: Larry Ephron
 60. ^ Broken Planet, Broken Dreams, Alden Bryant, Earth Regeneration Society
 61. ^ Whose World to Lose?, Alden Bryant, Earth Regeneration Society, 1992
 62. ^ The Tree War: How to save the earth and bring together the nations, Barry Lynes, Mass: Springfield, 1983; also known as Climate Crime: The Tree War Assembly, Barry Lynes, 1995
 63. ^ The Enlivened Rock Dust Powders, Harvey Lisle, Acres USA, 1994
 64. ^ Secrets of the Soil: New Solutions for Restoring Our Planet by Peter Tompkins and Christopher Bird (Arkana, 1992), ISBN 0140193111
 65. ^ The Secret Life of Plants by Peter Tompkins and Christopher Bird, HarperPerennial 1989, ISBN 0060915870.
 66. ^ Permaculture: A Designers' Manual: A Designer's Manual by Bill Mollison and Andrew Jeeves, Tagari Publications, 1998
 67. ^ Paramagnetism: Rediscovering Nature's Secret Force of Growth - Philip Callahan, Halcyon House Publishers; 1998
 68. ^ Rock Dusts in Agriculture: Insights on Remineralization and Paramagnetism by Steve Diver
 69. ^, The Ice Is Coming, Kort Patterson, 1999
 70. ^ Minerals for Ageing Soils - Lee Klinger at
 71. ^ Klinger uses remineralization to restore dying trees at
 73. ^ Stone Age Farming: Eco Agriculture For the 21st Century, Alanna Moore, Python Press,Australia (1 Jul 2001)
 74. ^ Priority One: Together We Can Beat Global Warming - Biosphere Media (15 May 2007) by Allan J. Yeomans
 75. ^ We Want Real Food by Graham Harvey, Constable, 2006, ISBN 1845292677
 76. ^ Agrogeology: The Use of Rocks for Crops by Peter von Straaten, Enviroquest Ltd 2007, ISBN 0968012353
 77. ^ First International Conference on Rock Dust and Soil Health, University of Guadalajara, Jalisco
 78. ^ Manual Práctico ABC de la Agricultura Orgánica y Harina de Rocas, Jairo Restrepo Rivera, Ventas Publicaciones/COAS
 79. ^ The Royal Society’s Report on Geoengineering the Climate: Geoengineering or Geopiracy?, Sep 4 2009, ETC Group, Canada,
 80. ^ The Survival Of Civilization, John Hamaker, Hamaker-Weaver Publishers, 1983, Remineralize The Earth 2002
 81. ^ To Love & Regenerate The Earth, Donald Weaver, Remineralize The Earth, 2002
 82. ^ Whole Life Systems Depend On Healthy Soil, Don Weaver, Living Nutrition Magazine.
 83. ^ Mother Earth's Call To Humanity: Help Me Regenerate Now, Living Nutrition Magazine, November 2005.
 84. ^ Global Warming Triggers Ice Age, Remineralization Connection, Don Weaver, Living Nutrition Magazine, 1997
 85. ^ What Should We Do About Climate Change?, Don Weaver, Living Nutrition Magazine, December 1996
 86. ^ Soil remineralization: a future market for aggregate industry fines, Robert J. Able, June 1995, Pit & Quarry.
 87. ^ 100,000-year Climate Pattern Linked To Sun's Magnetic Cycles, Professor Mukul Sharma, Dept. Earth Sciences, Dartmouth College, 2002
 88. ^ Klima Macht Geschichte, Kenneth Hsu, Orell Fussli, 2000
 89. ^ The Chilling Stars: A New Theory of Climate Change, Nigel Calder, Icon Books, 2nd edition, 2000s
 90. ^ The Cloud Mystery, 52 minutes, Language: English, TV2/Denmark, Denmark, 2008, Lars Oxfeldt Mortensen (Director).
 91. ^ Correlation Of Global Temperature To Sunspot Cycles. Swvensmark, Friis-Christensen and Lassen (Science 254, 698).
 92. ^ Solar Activity & The Biosphere: Heliobiology. From A.L. Chizhevsky To The Present by Boris M. Vladimirsky, N.A. Temuryants/Temurjants. Foreword & Editor: Prof. L.A. Blyumenfel’d, Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. 1999. 30 pages, 93 figures, 24 tables, and Bibliography with 500 items. Distributed by: International Independent Ecological & Politological University, Zdanie MEI Moscow Power Generation Institute Building, Moscow, Russia.
 93. ^ The Deniers: The World Renowned Scientists Who Stood Up Against Global Warming Hysteria, Political Persecution, and Fraud - and Those Who are Too Fearful to Do So by Lawrence Solomon, Richard Vigilante Books, 2008, ISBN 0980076315
 94. ^ Link Between Solar Cycle & Earth's Climate - Nexus, Volume 4, Number 4, June 1999; Science, April 1999.
 95. ^ Sun and Earth: A New View of Climate - Jack Sauers, 21st Century Science & Technology Magazine, Winter 1997
 96. ^ Long Range Solar Forecast, Solar Cycle 25 peaking around 2022 could be one of the weakest in centuries. NASA, 2006
 98. ^ Scientists Issue Unprecedented Forecast of Next Sunspot Cycle, UCAR, 2006
 99. ^ Sun still main force in climate change,, 2007
 100. ^ The sun moves climate change, Canada National Post, Lawrence Solomon, January 5, 2007
[edit] External links
    * Remineralize The Earth
    * Real Food Campaign
    * Earth Regeneration Society
    * Rocks For Crops
    * New Energy Movement
    * Sudden Oak Life
    * SEER Centre
    * Ocean Arks International
    * Renew The Earth
    * Vibrance
    * Acres USA